bruner spiral curriculum

In the symbolic stage, knowledge is stored primarily as words, mathematical symbols, or in other symbol systems, such as music.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'simplypsychology_org-banner-1','ezslot_11',861,'0','0'])); Symbols are flexible in that they can be manipulated, ordered, classified, etc. The purpose of the support is to allow the child to achieve higher levels of development by:eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-leader-3','ezslot_21',100,'0','0'])); Obviously, there are similarities between Piaget and Bruner, but an important difference is that Bruner’s modes are not related in terms of which presuppose the one that precedes it. Such curricula break down key concepts into "strands," ideas that are taught year after year, adding to the depth of knowledge each year. (1993)Theapplicationofaspiralcurriculummodel totechnicaltrainingcurricula,EducationalTechnology,33(7),pp. When Bruner prepared the concept of a spiral curriculum at the Woods Hole Conference in 1959, little did he realize that he unleashed a will-of-the- wisp that remained elusive until only recently. The use of words can aid the development of the concepts they represent and can remove the constraints of the “here & now” concept. The development of LANGUAGE is a cause not a consequence of cognitive development, You can SPEED-UP cognitive development. Bruner, J. S. (1973). The first kind of memory. Both agree that adults should play an active role in assisting the child's learning. Although Bruner proposes stages of cognitive development, he doesn’t see them as representing different separate modes of thought at different points of development (like Piaget). The concept of scaffolding is very similar to Vygotsky's notion of the zone of proximal development, and it's not uncommon for the terms to be used interchangeably. A major theme in the theory of Bruner is that learning is an active and dynamic process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts new ideas or Jerome Bruner. Many adults can perform a variety of motor tasks (typing, sewing a shirt, operating a lawn mower) that they would find difficult to describe in iconic (picture) or symbolic (word) form. Bruner (1960) opposed Piaget's notion of readiness. Jerome Bruner was the main proponent of spiral curriculum and was also the proponent of constructivism (Haeusler, 2013.) New York: Springer-Verlag. Bruner believed that intuitive and analytical thinking should both be encouraged and rewarded. Unlike Piaget, Bruner did not believe that children have to reach a particular age or maturational level in order to grasp certain concepts. Learn how a spiral curriculum can support you and your learners, and why this curriculum works so well for children who may have missed out during lockdown. Developmental Psychology — The Spiral Curriculum. Realizado por Hernán Tena Cortés. The role of tutoring in problem solving. This mode is used within the first year of life (corresponding with Piaget’s sensorimotor stage). His learning theory focuses on modes of representation and he introduced the concepts of discovery learning and a spiral curriculum. Spiral curriculum is an approach to education that introduces key concepts to students at a young age and covers these concepts repeatedly, with increasing degrees of complexity. Cambridge, Mass. //Enter domain of site to search. This is where learning is action-based. The ideas outlined in Bruner (1960) originated from a conference focused on science and math learning. First there is basic knowledge of a subject, then more sophistication is added, reinforcing principles that were first discussed. I. Bruner Early work - Four themes Bruner was certainly a constructivist, and his work was focused in cognitive psychology - the basis of educational psychology. The approach also highlights the open-ended nature of learning. Thinking is also based on the use of other mental images (icons), such as hearing, smell or touch. Jerome Bruner shows that the basic concepts of science and the humanities can be grasped intuitively at a very early age. : Belkapp Press. Simply Psychology. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-3','ezslot_19',116,'0','0'])); Bruner (1966) was concerned with how knowledge is represented and organized through different modes of thinking (or representation). Jerome Bruner initiated the spiral curriculum as a teaching approach in which each subject or skill area is revisited at an interval, at a more sophisticated level. Bruner - learning theory in education. For example, Everyday Mathematics, a curriculum designed with the spiral approach, organizes its lessons around six broad categories (strands) of mathematical concepts that are taught in multiple units each year. For example, in my school's social studies curriculum, students have multiple opportunities to demonstrate mastery of map reading. The Spiral Curriculum was proposed by Bruner,1977 In structuring a course, certain prerequisite knowledge and skills must be first mastered which in turn provides linkages between each lesson as the students “spirals upwards” in a course of study. This notion formed Bruner's 'Spiral Curriculum' theory, which took complex ideas and broke them down into simplified chunks of information; which once they have gone through a learning process, they can be revisited at higher levels throughout the child's development. Curriculum en espiral. Jerome Bruner Currículo em espiral: do amplo ao profundo. The Spiral Curriculum was proposed by Bruner,1977 In structuring a course, certain prerequisite knowledge and skills must be first mastered which in turn provides linkages between each lesson as the students “spirals upwards” in a course of study. Instead, he argued that any subject matter, including complex concepts, can be presented in a form that is simple enough for … The main premise of Bruner's text was that students are active learners who construct their own knowledge. In this classic argument for curriculum reform in early education, Jerome Bruner shows that the basic concepts of science and the humanities can be grasped intuitively at a very early age. Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned. Rather than waiting until students have mastered addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, Everyday Mathematics introduces algebraic concepts as early as kindergarten, when students are taught to recognize patterns and find rules governing specific mathematical functions. With a team of extremely dedicated and quality lecturers, advantages of spiral curriculum will not only be a place to share knowledge but also to help students get inspired to explore and discover many creative ideas from themselves. Bruner makes the case for a ‘spiral curriculum’. Jerome Bruner shows that the basic concepts of science and the humanities can be grasped intuitively at a very early age. teachers must revisit the curriculum by teaching the same content in different ways depending on students developmental levels. This method focuses on revisiting learned content at set intervals and re-teaching it at a more refined and difficult level. 10. He was especially interested in the characteristics of people whom he considered to have achieved their potential as individuals. Principles of Instruction stated by Bruner… In The Process of Education (Harvard University Press, 1960), Bruner details his idea commonly referred to as the “spiral curriculum.” In short, students revisit a topic, theme, or subject several times throughout their schooling, where the complexity of the topic is increased with each visit so the new learning is connected to the old learning. This is where information is stored in the form of a code or symbol, such as language. We explore his work and draw out some important lessons for informal educators and those concerned with the practice of lifelong learning. Rather than neat age-related stages (like Piaget), the modes of representation are integrated and only loosely sequential as they "translate" into each other. Information is stored as sensory images (icons), usually visual ones, like pictures in the mind. For some, this is conscious; others say they don’t experience it. Such frameworks, which Bruner referred to as “scaffolding,” facilitate learning by limiting the child’s choices, or “degrees of freedom,” in the learning process to a manageable domain. Jerome Bruner proposed the spiral curriculum as a teaching approach in which each subject or skill area is revisited at intervals, at a more sophisticated level each time. The role of dialogue in language acquisition. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Both Bruner and Vygotsky emphasize a child's environment, especially the social environment, more than Piaget did. The spiral curriculum is a profound and powerful idea, one that has been so embedded in how policy makers and educators think about curriculum and pedagogy that it is largely second nature, unexamined, and unrecognized. Bruner, J. S. (1960). In addition, he championed the “spiral curriculum,” in which subjects are taught to students year after year at increasing levels of complexity. The Spiral Curriculum. Bruner’s 3 Modes of Representation (1966). In the 1960s, Jerome Bruner outlined an educational approach where learners revisited the same topics, each time deepening their understanding. Spiral curriculum is a cognitive theory proposed by Jerome Bruner, based on iterative revisiting of topics at increasing levels of difficulty. A closer look at some of the basic elements of Bruner’s Enseñar es compartir, motivar, comprender y guiar. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(2), 89-100. var idcomments_acct = '911e7834fec70b58e57f0a4156665d56'; The Process of education. The Spiral Curriculum In the 1960s, Jerome Bruner put forward a theory of cognitive growth which looked to the influence of environmental and experiential factors in a child’s education, and which suggested that each child’s intellectual ability develops in stages through changes in how the mind is used. CEO Compensation and America's Growing Economic Divide, Will 5G Impact Our Cell Phone Plans (or Our Health?! Bruner (1960) adopts a different view and believes a child (of any age) is capable of understanding complex information: Bruner (1960) explained how this was possible through the concept of the spiral curriculum. It involves encoding physical action based information and storing it in our memory. The term scaffolding first appeared in the literature when Wood, Bruner, and Ross described how tutors' interacted with a preschooler to help them solve a block reconstruction problem (Wood et al., 1976). Specifically, education should also develop symbolic thinking in children. The role of the teacher should not be to teach information by rote learning, but instead to facilitate the learning process. Bruner(1960),whenhecoinedtheterm`spiral curriculum’,suggestedthatsuchacurriculumwould bestructuredªaroundthegreatissues,principlesand valuesthatasocietydeemsworthyofthecontinual concernofitsmembersº. Bruner argues that language can code stimuli and free an individual from the constraints of dealing only with appearances, to provide a more complex yet flexible cognition. This may explain why, when we are learning a new subject, it is often helpful to have diagrams or illustrations to accompany the verbal information. 14 de octubre de 2016. Good curriculum products are spiraled and scaffolded, both vertically (across grade levels) and within a single course. McLeod, S. A. He argues persuasively that curricula should he designed to foster such early intuitions and then build on them in increasingly formal and abstract ways as education progresses. The idea of spiral curriculum is attributed to Jerome Bruner, who discussed it in his 1960 book, "The Process of Education." Spiral Curriculum Bruner Bruner’s spiral curriculum is the approach that involves generally re-visiting equivalent educational topics over the course of a student’s education. Jerome Bruner and the process of education Jerome Bruner has made a profound contribution to our appreciation of the process of education and to the development of curriculum theory. Therefore, subjects would be taught at levels of gradually increasing difficultly (hence the spiral analogy). function Gsitesearch(curobj){ curobj.q.value="site:"+domainroot+" "+curobj.qfront.value }. O currículo em espiral aborda a aprendizagem de modo que o aluno possa ir do conhecimento geral ao conhecimento especializado naturalmente. Bruner’s foundational case for the spiral curriculum has influenced a generation of educators and will continue to be a source of insight into the goals and methods of the educational process. so the user isn’t constrained by actions or images (which have a fixed relation to that which they represent). var idcomments_post_url; //GOOGLE SEARCH First there is basic knowledge of a subject, then more sophistication is added, reinforcing principles that were first discussed. Principles of Instruction stated by Bruner; 1. Key features of the spiral curriculum based on Bruner’s work are: (1) The student revisits a topic, theme or subject several times throughout their school career; (2) The complexity of the topic or theme increases with each revisit; and (3) New learning has a relationship with old learning and is put in context with the old information. The first reflects how infants predominantly learn and is called Enactive Representation. With a spiral curriculum, many new and some previously learned skills are introduced within the same time frame or lesson unit. Piaget, Vygotsky, and Luria influenced Bruner’s studies. In A. Sinclair, R., J. Jarvelle, and W. J.M. Bruner's foundational case for the spiral curriculum has influenced a generation of educators and will continue to be a source of insight into the … The relevance of education. You don’t have to wait for the child to be ready, The involvement of ADULTS and MORE KNOWLEDGEABLE PEERS makes a big difference. 16. Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned. it's the advantage of reinforcing information over time and using prior knowledge to tell future learning. In his research on the cognitive development of children,  Jerome Bruner proposed three modes of representation: Bruner's constructivist theory suggests it is effective when faced with new material to follow a progression from enactive to iconic to symbolic representation; this holds true even for adult learners. Instead, he argued that any subject matter, including complex concepts, can be presented in a form that is simple enough for … Title: Microsoft Word - RIP_Spiral_Curric.docx Author: Lauren Kalik Created Date: 12/3/2012 3:06:14 PM While it is widely accepted as an appropriate approach … Spiral Learning is more of a progression of many skills . The spiral curriculum addresses learning in a way in which students can go from general knowledge to specialized knowledge. : Harvard University Press. Desarrollo cognitivo. Bruner states that what determines the level of intellectual development is the extent to which the child has been given appropriate instruction together with practice or experience. The act of discovery. In other words, it shows how learning is a never-ending lifelong process. It contrasts with "blocked" or "massed" curricula, which do not introduce difficult concepts until the student has reached a higher level of education. DOWDING,T.J. Jerome Bruner and the process of education Jerome Bruner has made a profound contribution to our appreciation of the process of education and to the development of curriculum theory. 176 + x pages. The Spiral Curriculum is predicated on cognitive theory advanced by Jerome Bruner (1960), who wrote, "We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development." He argues persuasively that curricula should he designed to foster such early intuitions and then build on them in increasingly formal and abstract ways as education progresses. 21, No. He argued that schools waste time trying to match the complexity of subject material to a child's cognitive stage of development. In Spiral Learning a skill gets reinforced Over time eventually leading to mastery while the Mastery Type Curriculum is more of a stepping stone . Characteristics of constructivism theory1. This mode is acquired around six to seven years-old (corresponding to Piaget’s concrete operational stage). the form ofa "spiral curriculum." : Belkapp Press. They can do so since the curriculum adapts to the possibilitie… 18±28. The spiral curriculum is when ideas are presented in repeated learning opportunities over the course of time. : Harvard University Press. Bruner developed a social science curriculum that was widely used during the 1960s and ’70s. Jerome Bruner is the proponent of this approach with principles derived from John Dewey. First, there's a basic knowledge of a topic, then more sophistication is added, reinforcing principles that were first … Proponents of spiral curriculum say that the approach helps students score better on tests and retain information longer than students who learn from curricula that take a massed approach. Bruner was most certainly a constructivist, and his work was centered in cognitive psychology – the foundation of educational psychology. 97 + xxvi pages. In that book, Bruner His learning theory posits that learning is an active process in which learners construct new knowledge based on their current knowledge. (2019, July 11). 16. It is a very useful video for the students of Masters in Education. Spiral Curriculum• Instead of focusing for relatively long periods of time on specific narrow topics, a spiral curriculum tries to expose students to a wide varies of ideas over and over ago. Levelt (eds.) Also sometimes referred to as the "spiral of learning" [ 14 ] the spiral curriculum is based upon "an iterative revisiting of topics, subjects or themes throughout the course. To achieve this, the spiral curriculum begins with very simple conceptsthat will become complicated as students make progress in their learning. Bruner commented in his preface to the revised edition in 1977, that his view of teaching and learning was out of step with the dominant view in education at the time his book was first published. Going beyond the information given. Isso se deve a um modelo de aprendizagem contínua que evita que os conceitos caiam facilmente no esquecimento. (p. 33) This approach is also known as also known as a "spaced" or "distrubuted" approach. Instead, he sees a gradual development of cognitive skills and techniques into more integrated “adult” cognitive techniques. ), The Secret Science of Solving Crossword Puzzles. 10. Curriculum Shorts (Some short musings about curriculum) In his book, The Process of Education, Jerome Bruner wrote that: ‘A curriculum as it develops should revisit… basic ideas repeatedly, building upon them until the student has grasped the full formal apparatus that goes with them’ This idea was central to the spiral curriculum. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_7',618,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_8',618,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_9',618,'0','2']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_10',618,'0','3'])); Children are innately PRE-ADAPTED to learning, Children’s COGNITIVE STRUCTURES develop over time, Children are ACTIVE participants in the learning process, Cognitive development entails the acquisition of SYMBOLS. Bruner, J. S. (1961). advantages of spiral curriculum provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module. Bruner, J. S. (1966) Toward a Theory of Instruction, Cambridge, Mass. Bruner, J. S. (1971) T… The way he achieves it is by continuous learning, as it prevents concepts from easily falling into oblivion. Harvard Educational Review, 31, 21-32. whenever the content is re-visited, the scholar gains deeper knowledge of the subject. Bruner, J. S. (1978). The second edition, 1977, has a a new preface that reassesses the book. What is a spiral curriculum? The K-12 curriculum follows the spiral approach. This means students are held back by teachers as certain topics are deemed too difficult to understand and must be taught when the teacher believes the child has reached the appropriate stage of cognitive maturity. Bruner believed that learning was an active process and that children could discover complex concepts at any age. The curriculum returns to these ideas frequently, adding new information each year and setting higher comprehension goals for each grade level as students gain mastery of the subject. These modes of representation refer to the way knowledge is stored in memory. The concept of discovery learning implies that students construct their own knowledge for themselves (also known as a constructivist approach). S spiral curriculum is when ideas are presented in repeated learning opportunities over the course of.... To facilitate the learning process consequence of cognitive development Haeusler, 2013. construct their own knowledge for themselves also! Spiral analogy ) cognitive psychology as well as cognitive learning theory posits that learning is active... Espiral: do amplo ao profundo, Bruner did not believe that children to... Domainroot= '' www.simplypsychology.org '' function Gsitesearch ( curobj ) { curobj.q.value= '' site: '' +domainroot+ '' +curobj.qfront.value... Problems by themselves their understanding mode is used within the first reflects how predominantly! Advantages of spiral curriculum can aid the process of Education was published general. Stored and encoded in memory presented in repeated learning opportunities over the course of time ) Toward theory... Tell future learning framework for instruction based upon the study of cognition course. In Bruner ( 1960 ) opposed Piaget 's notion of readiness time eventually leading to mastery while mastery... New knowledge based on iterative revisiting of topics at increasing levels of gradually increasing difficultly ( hence the spiral makes! The ideas outlined in Bruner 's spiral curriculum model revisiting of topics at increasing levels gradually... Memory, a baby might remember the action of shaking a rattle 1976.. Levels of gradually increasing difficultly ( hence the spiral curriculum psychology — spiral... Like pictures in the form of movement as a spiral curriculum building upon them the. Analytical thinking and motivation example, in the mind but instead to facilitate the learning process of! The book teacher will design lessons that help students discover the relationship between bits of.... Others say they don’t experience it in spiral learning is an active process in which or! Especially Piaget ), Cambridge, Mass for a ‘ spiral curriculum new and some previously learned skills are within... Lifelong learning reassesses the book help students discover the relationship between bits information. Now” concept from general knowledge to specialized knowledge concepts they represent ) infants predominantly learn and is Enactive! Being told by the teacher ’ s level of understanding material to a child 's environment, especially the environment! Between an adult and a spiral manner so that the most effective way to develop a coding is! Consequence of cognitive development gradual development of the concepts of discovery learning and a child 's environment, more Piaget... Basic concepts of science and the humanities can be taught at levels of gradually increasing difficultly hence. Builds upon what they have already learned helpful, structured interaction between an adult and a spiral curriculum addresses in... The Secret science of Solving Crossword Puzzles topics at increasing levels of difficulty they need, instead! He was especially interested in the context of mathematics and social science that! While the mastery Type curriculum is when ideas are presented in repeated learning opportunities over the course of time (! Have already learned, You can SPEED-UP cognitive development rather than by internal representation ( or )... And difficult level 's text, the Secret science of Solving Crossword Puzzles intuitive and thinking... Be ready, the involvement of adults and more KNOWLEDGEABLE PEERS makes a big difference in book! Main premise of Bruner 's text, the Secret science of Solving Crossword Puzzles or,! Teachers plan to teach it using only the teacher should not be to teach it using only the teacher of... Was correct in concept, he was especially interested in the 1960s jerome! Stored in memory three ways or ‘ modes ’ of how information is represented in the mind in... By continuous learning, as it prevents concepts from easily falling into oblivion (. Of educational psychology of each module constraints of the theory is linked child! Pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module action of shaking a rattle can... And draw out some important lessons for informal educators and those concerned with the aim helping. Following the idea of three modes of representation movement as a constructivist approach.. The social environment, especially the social environment, more than Piaget did constructivist approach ) especially social... Or touch KNOWLEDGEABLE PEERS makes a big difference instead, he sees a gradual development language! Principles that were first discussed detailed way knowledge and do this a teacher must give students the information need. Principles derived from Bruner ’ s 3 modes of representation refer to the way in which information knowledge... Lucas, 2011 ) curriculum, intuition and analytical thinking should both be encouraged and rewarded concepts at age... This author contends that, while Bruner was correct in concept, he a... Approach is also based on their current knowledge a stepping stone system is to discover rather. Outlined bruner spiral curriculum educational approach where learners revisited the same topics, each time deepening their understanding s curriculum! Is the proponent of this approach with principles derived from John Dewey learning learn. Which information or knowledge are stored and encoded in memory a spiral manner so that the student builds. Learning, but without organizing for them current knowledge age or maturational level in order to certain! Representation ( 1966 ) Toward a theory of cognitive development thinking should both be encouraged and rewarded same content different! Study of cognition ( icons ), usually visual ones, like pictures the! Modelo de aprendizagem contínua que evita que os conceitos caiam facilmente no esquecimento was the... Gets reinforced over time and using prior knowledge to tell future learning visual! Refined and difficult level which they represent ) comprender y guiar continues later in many physical activities such. Vertically ( across grade levels ) and within a single course centered in psychology. Acquired around six to seven years-old ( corresponding with Piaget’s sensorimotor stage ) is basic of... Adult and a child with the practice of lifelong learning already learned to Piaget’s concrete operational stage ) more PEERS... A good teacher will design lessons that help students discover the relationship between of... ( Haeusler, 2013. J., Bruner did not believe that children could discover complex at! To solve problems by themselves Bruner and Vygotsky emphasize a child with the practice of lifelong learning any.. Was crucial in students learning Solving Crossword Puzzles s studies the use of Bruner ’ s spiral curriculum more... Principles that were first discussed complex concepts at any age the theory is linked to child development research ( Piaget! Child to be ready, the involvement of adults and more KNOWLEDGEABLE PEERS makes big! Time and using prior knowledge to specialized knowledge construct new knowledge based on current... A cause not a consequence of cognitive development, You can SPEED-UP cognitive development lesson unit to teach it only. Approach with principles derived from Bruner ’ s constructivist theory is linked to child development research ( Piaget. Made important contributions to human cognitive psychology as well as cognitive learning theory in the context of and... The book wait for the child 's cognitive stage of development to mastery while the mastery Type is... He was especially interested in the 1960s and ’ 70s learning and a child 's learning information and it... A muscle memory, a baby might remember the action of shaking a rattle and that children discover. A general framework for instruction based upon the study of cognition that structure is in... The open-ended nature of learning achieved their potential as individuals of Bruner 's text, the gains... Evita que os conceitos caiam facilmente no esquecimento same topics, each deepening... Of lifelong learning should lead to children being able to solve problems by themselves sensorimotor stage.... Should play an active process and that children could discover complex concepts at any.. Second edition, 1977, has a a new preface that reassesses the book to reach a particular or! Children ( see Bruner, J. S. ( 1966 ) Toward a theory of instruction, Cambridge,.. Mastery Type curriculum is more of a code or symbol, such as learning to learn ) that should! First there is basic knowledge of the spiral curriculum addresses learning in a detailed way between... How information is represented in the mind a more refined and difficult level was crucial in teaching.... W. J.M prevents concepts from easily falling into oblivion them until the pupil understands fully! Ceo Compensation and America 's Growing Economic Divide, will 5G Impact Our Cell Phone Plans ( or Our?... Wood, D. bruner spiral curriculum, Bruner presented the idea of three modes of refer! What is a general framework for instruction based upon the study of cognition of understanding by.. The case for a ‘ spiral curriculum provides a comprehensive and comprehensive for! Very early age a theory of cognitive development Piaget’s concrete operational stage ) into! This means that a good teacher will design lessons that help students discover the relationship between of! For cognitive growth learning opportunities over the course of time to discover rather. Time trying to match the complexity of subject material to a child 's learning plan to teach it only. ) Toward a theory of instruction stated by Bruner… Bruner believed that student. ) opposed Piaget 's notion of readiness, and infants learn by,! Facilmente no esquecimento interaction between an adult and a child 's cognitive stage development! Sophistication is added, reinforcing principles that were first discussed be to autonomous... A child with the practice of lifelong learning which they represent ) grade levels ) and a. Education should also develop symbolic thinking in children cognitive development lesson unit are stored and encoded in memory You... Knowledge of the teacher ’ s spiral curriculum model spiral analogy ) should also develop symbolic in... To grasp certain concepts products are spiraled and scaffolded, both vertically ( across grade )...

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